After creating a custom attribute, you need to assign it to your member types. If you haven't done so, members of that type cannot access that custom attribute.
To assign custom attributes
Navigate to Database > Member Types. Hover over the member type you want to assign the custom attribute to, then click EDIT SETTINGS.
On the following page, click ASSIGN CUSTOM ATTRIBUTES.
You can assign some or all your custom attributes to this member type. Custom attributes assigned to this member type will appear in the member profile. Members can view and edit this attribute in their profile if your group attribute security settings allow.
Click SAVE when you've checked off all custom attributes you want to include for this member type.